Phonology, phonetic and phonological aspects



argumentative discourse, discourse, language sounds, linguistic studies, normal sound, phonology, syllables, universal language


This paper aimed at explaining the definition of phonology and exploring phonetic aspects in English. A continuous sequence of language sounds, sometimes an up and down sound, sometimes a short pause or a long pause, sometimes a loud or soft sound, and sometimes a stretching sound and a normal sound. The classification of this word in linguistics has always been a topic that has never been overlooked, since Aristotle's time until now, including in Indonesian linguistic studies, the problem has never been resolved. This occurs, because, firstly, each language has its own characteristics, and secondly, because the criteria used to classify the word can vary.


Atterer, M., & Ladd, D. R. (2004). On the phonetics and phonology of “segmental anchoring” of F0: evidence from German. Journal of Phonetics, 32(2), 177-197.

Barlaz, M., Shosted, R., Fu, M., & Sutton, B. (2018). Oropharygneal articulation of phonemic and phonetic nasalization in Brazilian Portuguese. Journal of Phonetics, 71, 81-97.

Baumann, S., & Cangemi, F. (2020). Integrating phonetics and phonology in the study of linguistic prominence. Journal of Phonetics, 81, 100993.

Beckman, J., Helgason, P., McMurray, B., & Ringen, C. (2011). Rate effects on Swedish VOT: Evidence for phonological overspecification. Journal of phonetics, 39(1), 39-49.

Berent, I. (2013). The phonological mind. Trends in cognitive sciences, 17(7), 319-327.

Best, C. T., & Strange, W. (1992). Effects of phonological and phonetic factors on cross-language perception of approximants. Journal of phonetics, 20(3), 305-330.

Bohn, O. S., & Best, C. T. (2012). Native-language phonetic and phonological influences on perception of American English approximants by Danish and German listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 40(1), 109-128.

Bondarko, L. V. (2005). Phonetic and phonological aspects of the opposition of ‘soft’and ‘hard’consonants in the modern Russian language. Speech communication, 47(1-2), 7-14.

Browman, C. P., & Goldstein, L. (1990). Representation and reality: Physical systems and phonological structure. Journal of Phonetics, 18(3), 411-424.

Burgess, J., & Spencer, S. (2000). Phonology and pronunciation in integrated language teaching and teacher education. System, 28(2), 191-215.

Bürki, A., Fougeron, C., Gendrot, C., & Frauenfelder, U. H. (2011). Phonetic reduction versus phonological deletion of French schwa: Some methodological issues. Journal of Phonetics, 39(3), 279-288.

Chen, Y. (2011). How does phonology guide phonetics in segment–f0 interaction?. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 612-625.

Darcy, I., Park, H., & Yang, C. L. (2015). Individual differences in L2 acquisition of English phonology: The relation between cognitive abilities and phonological processing. Learning and Individual Differences, 40, 63-72.

Davidson, L. (2006). Phonology, phonetics, or frequency: Influences on the production of non-native sequences. Journal of Phonetics, 34(1), 104-137.

de Leeuw, E., & Celata, C. (2019). Plasticity of native phonetic and phonological domains in the context of bilingualism. Journal of Phonetics, 75, 88-93.

Deng, L. (1998). A dynamic, feature-based approach to the interface between phonology and phonetics for speech modeling and recognition. Speech communication, 24(4), 299-323.

Dinnsen, D. A., & Charles-Luce, J. (1984). Phonological neutralization, phonetic implementation and individual differences. Journal of phonetics, 12(1), 49-60.

Dmitrieva, O., Jongman, A., & Sereno, J. (2010). Phonological neutralization by native and non-native speakers: The case of Russian final devoicing. Journal of phonetics, 38(3), 483-492.

Dmitrieva, O., Llanos, F., Shultz, A. A., & Francis, A. L. (2015). Phonological status, not voice onset time, determines the acoustic realization of onset f0 as a secondary voicing cue in Spanish and English. Journal of Phonetics, 49, 77-95.

Foulkes, P., & Docherty, G. (2006). The social life of phonetics and phonology. Journal of phonetics, 34(4), 409-438.

Frisch, S. A., & Wright, R. (2002). The phonetics of phonological speech errors: An acoustic analysis of slips of the tongue. Journal of Phonetics, 30(2), 139-162.

Gahl, S., Yao, Y., & Johnson, K. (2012). Why reduce? Phonological neighborhood density and phonetic reduction in spontaneous speech. Journal of memory and language, 66(4), 789-806.

Hallé, P. A., Best, C. T., & Levitt, A. (1999). Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants. Journal of phonetics, 27(3), 281-306.

Johnson, K. (2006). Resonance in an exemplar-based lexicon: The emergence of social identity and phonology. Journal of phonetics, 34(4), 485-499.

Kharlamov, V. (2014). Incomplete neutralization of the voicing contrast in word-final obstruents in Russian: Phonological, lexical, and methodological influences. Journal of phonetics, 43, 47-56.

Klatt, D. H. (1979). Speech perception: A model of acoustic–phonetic analysis and lexical access. Journal of phonetics, 7(3), 279-312.

Lahiri, A., & Reetz, H. (2010). Distinctive features: Phonological underspecification in representation and processing. Journal of Phonetics, 38(1), 44-59.

Local, J. (2003). Variable domains and variable relevance: interpreting phonetic exponents. Journal of Phonetics, 31(3-4), 321-339.

Menn, L. (1983). Development of articulatory, phonetic, and phonological capabilities. Language production, 2, 3-50.

Mennen, I. (2004). Bi-directional interference in the intonation of Dutch speakers of Greek. Journal of phonetics, 32(4), 543-563.

Mitterer, H., & Ernestus, M. (2008). The link between speech perception and production is phonological and abstract: Evidence from the shadowing task. Cognition, 109(1), 168-173.

Nielsen, K. (2011). Specificity and abstractness of VOT imitation. Journal of Phonetics, 39(2), 132-142.

Ohala, J. J. (1990). There is no interface between phonology and phonetics: a personal view. Journal of phonetics, 18(2), 153-171.

Ohala, J. J., & Ohala, M. (1993). The phonetics of nasal phonology: Theorems and data. In Nasals, nasalization, and the velum (pp. 225-249). Academic Press.

Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Blachman, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., ... & Gore, J. C. (2004). Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. Biological psychiatry, 55(9), 926-933.

Sproat, R., & Fujimura, O. (1993). Allophonic variation in English/l/and its implications for phonetic implementation. Journal of phonetics, 21(3), 291-311.

Turkeltaub, P. E., & Coslett, H. B. (2010). Localization of sublexical speech perception components. Brain and language, 114(1), 1-15.

Van Oostendorp, M. (2008). Incomplete devoicing in formal phonology. Lingua, 118(9), 1362-1374.

Warner, N., Jongman, A., Sereno, J., & Kemps, R. (2004). Incomplete neutralization and other sub-phonemic durational differences in production and perception: Evidence from Dutch. Journal of phonetics, 32(2), 251-276.

Wiese, R. (2006). Phonology: overview. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 9, 562-564.



How to Cite

Alsharif, H. (2020). Phonology, phonetic and phonological aspects. Macrolinguistics and Microlinguistics, 1(1), 52–68.